Depending on the individual patient’s pain tolerance, comfort with awake procedures, and acceptance of the risks of general anesthesia, otoplasty may be performed under straight local anesthesia, local anesthesia with sedation, or local anesthesia combined with general anesthesia. Most young children will not tolerate otoplasty under straight local and will need sedation or general anesthetic in addition. You will note that in every case, local anesthesia is used. This is done for two very good reasons. Local anesthetic contains epinephrine, known to decrease bleeding through contracting blood carrying vessels, making the procedure technically easier through improving visualization (by not having a bloody operating field), and making it safer through decreasing blood loss. The second beneficial effect of the use of local anesthesia in ear pinning is the significant decrease in the intensity of pain reported by patients after.